C. should make the story interesting D. should slant (歪曲) the story

79. The least effective way of “slanting” news is by _______.

A. selection B. ignoring it

C. focusing on local news D. interpretation

80. Placement of a story on page one or page twenty-four will control its ....

A. impact B. accuracy

C. relative importance D. neutralism

Passage Five

Until a few years ago most experts believed that young children couldn’t lie. The late developmental psychologist Jean Piaget believed that children under 7 had trouble distinguishing between fantasy and reality and couldn’t be held accountable for untruths. But recent research indicates that children as young as 4 are quite capable of telling a deliberate lie to get out of trouble. Researchers believe the fear of a parent’s disapproval discourages a very young child from lying. But by the age of 8 disapproval is not enough. A child should understand the consequences of the lie and the ways in which it destroys trust.

A child who lies a lot may be asking for help. Recent research suggests that kids who are being treated for psychological problems lie almost three times as much as well-adjusted kids. A study in England in the early 1970s showed that one third of the children identified as chronic liars by their parents ended up being convicted of theft later on. Other studies indicate that children who have manipulative personalities are skilled at telling lies to get what they want. Two decades ago researchers devised a morality test called a Mach scale. They found that kids who scored high in Mach characteristics-cynicism, desire for power-often lied to achieve their goals.

How should honesty be taught? It seems that harsh punishment, thought by many parents to discourage lying, may actually increase it. “It creates a fear of punishment, rather than an internalized belief in moral behavior,” psychologist Paul Ekman says. To help a child realize the damage lying does, a parent might use tales like “The Boy Who Cried Wolf” for younger children and draw object lessons from the news as the kids grow older.

Just because parents learn why lies occur doesn’t mean they should accept them. Psychologists encourage parents to expect their children to be truthful. Ekman counsels parents to set a good example, avoiding even white lies as much as possible, and to stress the family’s bond of trust. He also reminds parents that they must remain compassionate. “A terrible act, a desperate lie to conceal it, needs to be punished,” he writes. “But it also needs to be forgiven.”

81. Until a few years ago most experts believe that young children couldn’t lie because they are _______.

A. unconscious of the wrong or right

B. slightly influenced by surrounding people

C. unable to differentiate illusion from truth

D. ignorant of the idea of honesty and dishonesty

82. Recent research indicates that children as young as 4 are quite capable of telling a deliberate lie because they want to _______.

A. ask for permission to do something B. get out of some difficulties

C. get something to eat or play D. be given love by the parents

83. The lying of children by the age of 8 should be discouraged by _______.

A. simple disagreement

B. physical punishment

C. showing disgust for them

D. making them know the consequences of lying in addition to disagreement

84. For children, harsh punishment can _______.

A. effectively discourage lying B. discourage lying to a certain extent

C. discourage lying only in vain D. actually strengthen lying

85. The article gives one an impression that children’s bad habit of telling lies can be effectively overcome _______.

A. by force B. by inducement

C. by satisfying their needs D. by example, feeling and reason

Passage Six

Among all the malignancies, lung cancer is the biggest killer; more than 100,000 Americans die of the disease, giving up smoking is one of obvious ways to reduce the risk, but another answer may lie in the kitchen. According to a new report, even heavy smokers may be protected from developing lung cancer by eating a daily portion of carrots, spinach or any other vegetable or fruit containing a form of vitamin A called carotene (胡萝卜素).

The finding, published in THE LANCET, is part of a long-range investigation of diet and disease. Since 1957, some American researchers have monitored the dietary habits and medical histories of 2,000 middle-aged men employed by the Western Electric Co. in Chicago. Led by Dr. Richard Shekelle of St. Luke’s Medical Center, the researchers recently began to sort out the links between the subjects’ dietary patterns and cancer. Other studies of animals and humans have suggested that vitamin A offers some protection against lung cancer. The correlation seemed logical, explains Shekelle, since vitamin A is essential for the growth of the epithelial (上皮的) tissue that lines the airways of the lungs.

Vegetables: But the earlier research did not distinguish between the two different forms of the vitamin. “Preformed” vitamin A, known as retinol (维A醛), is found mainly in liver and dairy products like milk, cheese, butter and eggs. But vitamin A is also made in the body from carotene, which is abundant in a variety of vegetables and fruits, including carrots, spinach, squash, tomatoes, sweet potatoes and apples.

In the study, Shekelle and his colleagues found little correlation between the incidence of lung cancer and the consumption of foods containing preformed vitamin A. But when they examined the data on carotene intake, they discovered a significant relationship. Among the 488 men who had the lowest level of carotene consumption, there were 14 cases of lung cancer; in a group of the same size that ate the most carotene, only two cases developed. The apparent protective effect of carotene held up even for long-time smokers—but to a lesser degree.

Further studies will be necessary before the link between lung cancer and carotene can be firmly established. In the meantime, researchers warn against taking large numbers of vitamin A pills, because the tablets contain a form of the chemical that can be extremely toxic in high doses. Instead, they advise a well-balanced diet that includes goods rich in carotene. For a smoker, a half-cup of carrots every day might possibly make the difference between life and death.

86. The word “malignancy” (line 1, para. 1) most probably refers to _______.

A. cancer B. sickness

C. vitamins D. disease

87. Preformed vitamin A is NOT found in _______.

A. milk B. eggs

C. apples D. cheese

88. Carotene is present in all of the following EXCEPT ..

A. tomatoes B. carrots

C. squash D. butter

89. Among the groups studied, who had the most cases of lung cancer?

A. Those with the lowest level of carotene intake

B. Those with the highest level of carotene intake

C. Those who ate only foods containing carotene

D. Those with the lowest intake of carrots

90. What is needed to establish firmly the link between carotene and lung cancer?

A. Further study. B. More money.

C. More cases of lung cancer D. More people willing to eat carrots.




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